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  • edited November 2009
    Psychology notes 111109
    Autism Studies

    There are many types of autism, from high functioning to low functioning. People like Temple Grandin and Stephen Wiltsire, they posses great skill in a certain area of their lives, but are impaired socially. Symptoms of autism include, communication problems, lack of social interaction and limited imagination.

    Baron-Cohen, Lesie and Frith, performed an experiment titled “Does the autistic child have “Theory of Mind”?”. Theory of mind is the ability to recognise that others have minds, thoughts, knowledge and emotions. They wanted to show that there was a cognitive impairments and not just abuse from parents as was previously thought. The test involved 20 autistic children, 14 Downs Syndrome and 27 “normal” children.

    Average age (years)
    Verbal Mental age
    Non Verbal mental age
    Children with Autism (20)
    Children with Downs syndrome (14)
    “Normal Children” (27)

    The Sally-Anne Test

    The Sally-Anne Test involves two dolls, named Sally and Anne. Sally has a marble which she puts in a box. Sally then leaves. Anne takes the marble out of the box and puts it in her box. Sally came back into the room and then the children were asked these four questions.
    1.Naming Question: What are the names of the dolls?
    2.Belief Question: Were will Sally look for the marble?
    3.Reality Question: Where is the marble really?
    4.Memory Question: Where was the marble in the beginning?

    Answered “Belief Question: Were will Sally look for the marble?” correctly
    % of correct answers
    Autistic Children (20)
    4 out of 20
    Downs Syndrome (14)
    12 out of 14
    “Normal” (27)
    23 out of 27

    Simon Baron-Cohen,
    Study of high functioning autistic adults, “normals” and Tourette's syndrome subjects. The subjects average I.Q. was around 90-110. However the Asperger's and Tourette's subjects had developmental disorders during childhood. It was thought that Asperger's and Tourette's related to the same area of the brain caused by genetic factors. It was believed that these disorders usually affect men more than women

    In the study, there were 16 Asperger's subjects (13 male, 3 female) with an average I.Q. of 105, they came from all over England. There were 50 “normal” subjects (25 male, 25 female) with an average I.Q. of 104, they all came from the Cambridge area with no mental problems. There were 10 Tourette's subjects (8 male, 2 female) with an average I.Q. of 103 all from the London area.

    The Eyes test
    Each of these people was either tested at home or in the researchers laboratory, but it was a quiet atmosphere. They were shown pictures of people eyes for three seconds and then were told to answer questions about the emotions shown by the eyes, given two possible answers.

    The strange stories test
    This was a test made by Happe, one of the tests is told like this. Sally and Jill are playing. Sally picks up a Banana and holds it to her ear and exclaims “Look, it's a telephone”. Why is Sally saying the Banana is a phone? A series of these types of tests is performed as well as a gender recognition test and a Basic emotional

    Eyes Task (out of 25)
    Gender Task (out of 25)
    Strange Stories Task

    The strange stories test backs up the eyes test, they are concurrent. If the gender identification also supported the other two, then I would been triangulation

    Eyes Task
    Gender recognition

    Strengths and weaknesses

    This experiment is strong because it has control of many variables,
    But this is a quasi experiment because they did not manipulate the independent variables, but relied on a pre-existing conditions. This weakens the test slightly, but it allows us to study naturally occurring conditions ethically. It also has concurrent validity, the strange stories test backs up the eyes test as a valid measure of ToM. However because this is a quasi experiment we cannot show cause and affect. This also lacks ecological validity, because the subjects are in a laboratory setting, which may effect the autistic subjects especially.
    Post edited by ElJoe0 on
  • Go, if you come up against a hurdle.
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  • edited November 2009
    On the first day Evan got a banana.
    And his stomach was without form and void; and the hunger within it was deep.
    And Evan said let there be banana, and there was banana.
    And Evan saw the the banana, that it was good; and Evan divided the outer bit from the inner bit.
    And Evan called the outer bit the peel, and the inner bit the fruit.
    And Evan said let this banana enter my mouth so that I may separate it with my teeth.
    And Evan separated it with his teeth; he called it delicious.
    And Evan looked upon the Banana peel and said let it be cast into the trash bin, and it was so.
    And Evan looked at his full belly and saw everything he had eaten, and, behold, it was good.
    And Evan ended his work which he had eaten; and he rested on the office chair from his work which he had eaten.
    Post edited by Walker on
  • sequential
  • edited November 2009
    Post edited by George Patches on
  • Not that much, sure, but
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  • I walked along the brightly lit streets of the city for another few blocks. I no longer recognized the area around me, and the buildings seemed to be becoming more and more run down. Out of the corner of my eye, I noticed a flash of movement in an alleyway. Upon turning to inspect, I was greeted with the most intensely strange scene that I had ever witnessed. Lying on the ground was a young woman, who could barely be older than 25, and standing over her were three grotesque figures. They were in the shapes of men, but were obviously not of man... Tall and broad-shouldered, but animal-thin and lithe, they projected a wild, predatorial ferocity. This bestial aura was complemented by the rage and pain which was evident in their otherworldly visages, which were unnaturally symmetrical. They were clothed similarly to others in this uncouth section of town, although their mere force of presence showed that these loose constructions of cloth were merely poor disguises. As I stood in disbelief, I noticed movement from the woman on the ground and heard an indistinct mumbling from the beings looming above her. I then noticed that one of the three monsters began to reach towards the fallen woman. It only took a second for me to act, as I immediately registered the malicious intent obvious in his face and quickly drew from my hip the revolver which I make a habit of carrying. Taking precise aim, my body moving as though controlled by forces beyond it, most likely due to adrenaline and fear, I quickly fired five times. Two of the beasts fell, but one still stood, and it now jerked it's head toward me and began moving swiftly and intently in my direction with an unnerving silent grace. Remembering the lessons I had been taught in my elementary education, I held my fire until the creature was nearly upon me, at which point I noticed it's eyes held no white and were in fact, entirely black. The slug erupted from the barrel of my firearm and met with the skull of my charging foe, snapping it back. The creature fell motionless several paces from me, strangely dark blood leaking from it's cranium. At this point I first noticed the screaming of the woman, who was rather overcome with terror near the corpses of her assailants. Stepping gingerly over the slain bodies of my enemy, I reached the woman and hefted her in my arms despite her protestations and screaming. I then continued my trek through the night, intent on returning to my humble abode and discovering the circumstances which resulted in the previously described events.
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